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经济学人:欧洲天然气 管道压力

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Business European gas Pipeline pressures

商业 欧洲天然气 管道压力
The battle over gas prices in Europe
欧洲的天然气价格之战
NO ONE likes getting a gas bill. But Europe's biggest utilities are especially upset over the sums they must pay gas producers, in particular Russia's state-backed giant, Gazprom.
没人乐意收到天然气账单,而欧洲最大的天燃气公司对于向天然气供应商支付的账单尤其感到沮丧,特别是俄国政府撑腰的巨头俄罗斯天燃气公司的账单。
Some are trying to cut those costs; but with little in the way of leverage over producers their chances of success look slender.
有些燃气公司想削减开支,但是几乎没有任何制衡供应商的手段,所以成功的希望渺茫。
Gas prices in continental Europe are mainly set by a decades-old system of long-term contracts, linked to the price of oil.
欧洲的天然气定价是有几十年历史的长期合同方式,合同价格和石油挂钩。
But in relatively liberalised Britain gas is largely traded at spot prices set by current supply and demand.
但是在市场相对自由的英国,天然气以供需决定的市场价格进行交易。
This handed an advantage to some smaller European utilities with interconnections to the British spot market when, in 2008, gas prices suddenly fell.
在2008年天然气价格突然下跌时,在英国现货市场交易的小型欧洲天然气公司便拥有优势,而其规模更大的对手便受到损失。
Their bigger rivals meanwhile suffered. They were saddled with "take or pay" contracts that obliged them to buy fixed quantities of gas far above what they could sell and at prices way above those on the spot market.
他们签署了一系列"照付不议"的合同,必须以大大高于现货市场的价格购买固定数量的天然气,而很大一部分根本就卖不出去。
The gap between spot and contract prices has not gone away.
现货市场价格和合同价格的差异仍然存在。
German firms, which are especially hostage to Russian pipelines, are at a big disadvantage.
德国公司受到俄国天燃气管道牵制尤为严重,所处地位非常不利。
Yet both Russia and Norway, which supply almost half of Europe's gas, have shown some flexibility towards their complaining customers.
但是供应欧洲将近一半天然气的俄国和挪威对于满腹牢骚的客户显示了一定的灵活性。
By the end of 2009 European gas buyers were begging for relief, with oil-indexed gas then 50% pricier than spot gas.
2009年底,和油价挂钩的天然气价格比现货市场高出50%,欧洲天然气买家纷纷请求供应商网开一面。
In response, Norway's Statoil allowed an element of spot pricing (around 25% of oil-indexed contracts) for three years.
挪威国家石油公司允许在未来三年内部分采用现货价格(约占油价挂钩合同的25%左右)。
Gazprom responded with a less generous 15-20% allowance.
俄罗斯天然气公司允许的比例更低一些,为15%至20%。
Since then the Russian firm has been the staunchest defender of oil indexation (especially as the oil price has soared).
自此以后,俄罗斯天然气公司一直力挺挂钩油价(特别是因为油价飙升)。
And squeezed utilities are again trying to make it change its mind.
被压迫的天燃气公司则再次尝试让它改变主意。
Yet negotiations over new gas contracts have foundered.
但是签署新天然气合约的谈判失败了。
E.ON is taking Gazprom to arbitration.
德国意昂集团将俄罗斯天然气公司上诉至仲裁机构。
RWE, which favours a complete shift to spot prices, has apparently followed suit.
赞成完全采用现货价格的德国莱茵集团也效仿这一做法。
France's GDF is also considering arbitration.
法国天然气苏伊士集团也在考虑选择仲裁。
But the process could take years and the Europeans may not win.
但是这一过程可能耗费多年,欧洲公司不一定会成为赢家。
Meanwhile Gazprom is doing what it can to cement oil indexation by increasing its grip on European power markets.
同时俄罗斯天然气公司正通过各种手段加强对欧洲电力市场的掌控以巩固油价挂钩体系。
At the beginning of October the Russian firm said it was interested in buying power companies in Britain, Germany and across Europe.
10月初,俄罗斯天然气公司表示有意收购英国、德国和欧洲其他国家的电力公司。
This would reinforce its ability to set gas prices on its terms.
这将加强其按自己开出的条件定价的能力。
Troubles at RWE, Germany's second-biggest electricity producer, have also played into Gazprom's hand.
德国第二大电力公司莱茵集团的重重问题也为俄罗斯天然气公司助了一臂之力。
RWE is burdened by poor acquisitions, a new nuclear-fuel tax and Germany's decision to abandon nuclear power (which constitutes 20% of RWE's generating capacity) by 2022.
失败的收购项目、新增的核能税和德国政府将于2022年彻底放弃核能的计划(核能约占莱茵集团发电量的20%),使莱茵集团背负沉重包袱。
On October 6th it said it would continue negotiations begun in July with Gazprom over a possible joint venture to generate electricity from gas and coal.
10月6日,该集团宣布将恢复与俄罗斯天然气公司于7月开始的谈判,讨论建立利用油气发电的合资企业。
In return for going into business with the Russian gas giant, RWE would likely get cheaper gas, but still on the basis of oil indexation.
作为和俄罗斯巨头合作的回报,莱茵集团可能会以较低价格获得天然气,但仍然会和油价挂钩。
A deal between Gazprom and RWE could have big consequences for European energy policy.
俄罗斯天然气公司和莱茵集团如果达成协议将会对欧洲能源政策造成巨大影响。
To reduce reliance on Russia, plans are afoot to run a pipeline from Central Asia.
为了减少对俄罗斯的依赖,欧洲正计划建设通往中亚的天然气管道,即纳布科管道。
And the main consortium partner in the EU's preferred proposal, known as Nabucco, is RWE.
建设这一项目的公司联盟中一个重要的成员就是莱茵集团。
Yet doubts persist as to how this would be financed (particularly given RWE's parlous state) and indeed where the gas to fill such a large pipeline would be found.
但是这一项目如何融资的问题一直没有解决(特别是考虑到莱茵集团比较靠不住),而且到哪里找到这么多的天然气填满这一巨大的管道也是未知数。
Meanwhile, another proposed pipeline along Europe's "southern corridor", called South Stream, which would run from Russia to Western Europe, subsidised by the Kremlin, looks set to go ahead—making Europe even more dependent on the Bear.
另一方面,计划延欧洲"南部走廊"建成的、连接俄国和西欧的南溪天然气管道项目似乎毫无疑问会上马,这将使欧洲更加依赖俄罗斯。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
joint [dʒɔint]

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adj. 联合的,共同的,合资的,连带的
n.

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reliance [ri'laiəns]

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n. 信赖,所信赖的人或物

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capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
adj.

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advantage [əd'vɑ:ntidʒ]

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n. 优势,有利条件
vt. 有利于

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decision [di'siʒən]

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n. 决定,决策

 
dependent [di'pendənt]

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adj. 依靠的,依赖的,从属的
n.

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leverage ['li:vəridʒ]

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n. 杠杆(作用,力量),举债经营 v. (使)举债经营

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corridor ['kɔridɔ:]

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n. 走廊

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venture ['ventʃə]

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n. 冒险,风险,投机
v. 尝试,谨慎地做,

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shift [ʃift]

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n. 交换,变化,移动,接班者
v. 更替,移

 
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关键字: 欧洲 天然气 管道

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