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习近平主席在纪念马克思诞辰200周年大会上的讲话(4)(中英对照)(中英对照)

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Comrades,

同志们!
Engels once said that "A nation that wants to climb the pinnacles of science cannot possibly manage without theoretical thought." If we Chinese are to realize national rejuvenation, we likewise cannot possibly manage without theoretical thought. Marxism is and will continue to be the guiding theory for our Party and nation. It is the formidable theoretical tool which we use to understand the world, grasp its underlying patterns, search for its truth, and effect change.
恩格斯说过:“一个民族要想站在科学的最高峰,就一刻也不能没有理论思维。”中华民族要实现伟大复兴,也同样一刻不能没有理论思维。马克思主义始终是我们党和国家的指导思想,是我们认识世界、把握规律、追求真理、改造世界的强大思想武器。
Marxist ideas and theories are wide-ranging and profound and maintain relevance even with repeated study. In the new era, Chinese Communists still need to study Marx, study and practice Marxism, and continually draw on its powerful knowledge and theories. In this way, we will uphold and develop Chinese socialism in the new era with more resolve, confidence, and wisdom in our efforts at carrying out the coordinated advancement of the "five-pronged" overall plan and the "Four Comprehensives" strategy, thus ensuring that we always stay the course toward national rejuvenation as we break the waves and sail ahead.
马克思主义思想理论博大精深、常学常新。新时代,中国共产党人仍然要学习马克思,学习和实践马克思主义,不断从中汲取科学智慧和理论力量,在统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局中,更有定力、更有自信、更有智慧地坚持和发展新时代中国特色社会主义,确保中华民族伟大复兴的巨轮始终沿着正确航向破浪前行。
Studying Marx requires the study and practice of Marxist thought on the patterns underlying the development of human society. Marx revealed through his research the inexorable trend that human society would ultimately move toward Communism. Marx and Engels firmly believed that in the society of the future "we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all," and that "the proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win." Marx firmly believed that the tide of history would only surge forward once the people became the masters of themselves, society, and human development, and with this the ideal of Communism would necessarily be realized by degrees through the extant conditions of continuous change.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于人类社会发展规律的思想。马克思科学揭示了人类社会最终走向共产主义的必然趋势。马克思、恩格斯坚信,未来社会“将是这样一个联合体,在那里,每个人的自由发展是一切人的自由发展的条件”,“无产者在这个革命中失去的只是锁链。他们获得的将是整个世界。”马克思坚信历史潮流奔腾向前,只要人民成为自己的主人、社会的主人、人类社会发展的主人,共产主义理想就一定能够在不断改变现存状况的现实运动中一步一步实现。
Marxism established the theoretical foundation for the unwavering ideals and convictions of Communists. We need to have a complete mastery of the worldviews and methodologies of dialectical and historical materialism,and fully understand that realizing Communism is a historical process involving the step-by-step achievement of milestones. We need to bring together the noble ideal of Communism with the shared ideal of Chinese socialism and the endeavors in which we are currently engaged, remain confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of Chinese socialism, and adhere to the ideals and beliefs of Chinese Communists. We need to be like Marx, and strive for Communism throughout our lives.
马克思主义奠定了共产党人坚定理想信念的理论基础。我们要全面掌握辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的世界观和方法论,深刻认识实现共产主义是由一个一个阶段性目标逐步达成的历史过程,把共产主义远大理想同中国特色社会主义共同理想统一起来、同我们正在做的事情统一起来,坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,坚守共产党人的理想信念,像马克思那样,为共产主义奋斗终身。
Studying Marx requires the study and practice of Marxist thought on upholding the position of the people. An affinity with the people is Marxism's most distinctive character. According to Marx, historical action is the action of the masses. Enabling the people to gain their emancipation was Marx's life pursuit. We must always ensure that our basic position is that of the people, and that we strive for the wellbeing of the people as our fundamental mission, remain committed to the fundamental principle of wholeheartedly serving the people, and carry out the mass line. We must also respect the principal position of the people and the creativity of the people, forever maintain close ties with them, channel our strength into an impenetrable great wall, and unite the people and lead them in moving history forward. This is the inevitable choice which respects the patterns of history, and it is the responsibility undertaken by communists on our own initiative in staying true to our founding mission.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于坚守人民立场的思想。人民性是马克思主义最鲜明的品格。马克思说,“历史活动是群众的活动”。让人民获得解放是马克思毕生的追求。我们要始终把人民立场作为根本立场,把为人民谋幸福作为根本使命,坚持全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,贯彻群众路线,尊重人民主体地位和首创精神,始终保持同人民群众的血肉联系,凝聚起众志成城的磅礴力量,团结带领人民共同创造历史伟业。这是尊重历史规律的必然选择,是共产党人不忘初心、牢记使命的自觉担当。
Studying Marx requires the study and practice of Marxist thought on the forces and relations of production. Marxism holds that the material forces of production form the material prerequisites for all social existence, and that the totality of these relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of the material forces of production constitutes the economic foundation of society. The forces of production are the most dynamic and revolutionary factors driving social progress. "The multitude of productive forces accessible to men determines the nature of society." The mutual interactions and constraints between the forces and relations of production and between the economic foundation and the superstructure govern the whole course of social development.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于生产力和生产关系的思想。马克思主义认为,物质生产力是全部社会生活的物质前提,同生产力发展一定阶段相适应的生产关系的总和构成社会经济基础。生产力是推动社会进步最活跃、最革命的要素。“人们所达到的生产力的总和决定着社会状况。”生产力和生产关系、经济基础和上层建筑相互作用、相互制约,支配着整个社会发展进程。
Unleashing and developing the national forces of production is a fundamental task of socialism; it is also a major concern which Chinese Communists continue to explore and work hard to resolve. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and especially since reform and opening-up, within 70 years our Party has led the people in resolute efforts at unleashing and developing national forces of production and completed a process of development that took the West several centuries to complete, thus propelling our country's high-speed rise to become the world's second largest economy. We need to have the courage to deepen reform in all areas, rouse the vitality of the national forces of production via balancing the relations of production, and adapt to the requirements of developing the economic foundation via improving the superstructure. By doing so, we will ensure that the development of Chinese socialism better conforms with the patterns governing the forces and relations of production.
解放和发展社会生产力是社会主义的本质要求,是中国共产党人接力探索、着力解决的重大问题。新中国成立以来特别是改革开放以来,在不到70年的时间内,我们党带领人民坚定不移解放和发展社会生产力,走完了西方几百年的发展历程,推动我国快速成为世界第二大经济体。我们要勇于全面深化改革,自觉通过调整生产关系激发社会生产力发展活力,自觉通过完善上层建筑适应经济基础发展要求,让中国特色社会主义更加符合规律地向前发展。
Studying Marx requires the study and practice of Marxist thought on the people's democracy. As Marx and Engels noted, "The proletarian movement is the self-conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority," "that the working class, once come to power, could not go on managing with the old state machine," it must "[shatter]…the former state power and…[replace it with] a new and truly democratic one." State organs must change from controlling the public to serving them, and accept public oversight. We need to keep to the socialist path of political advancement with Chinese characteristics, and drive the development of China's socialist democracy while remaining committed to the smooth integration of Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance. We also need to strengthen institutional guarantees for the running of the country by the people, hasten the modernization of China's governance system and capacity, give full play to the people's enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity, and more firmly and effectively implement a people's democracy.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于人民民主的思想。马克思、恩格斯指出,“无产阶级的运动是绝大多数人的,为绝大多数人谋利益的独立的运动”,“工人阶级一旦取得统治权,就不能继续运用旧的国家机器来进行管理”,必须“以新的真正民主的国家政权来代替”。国家机关必须由社会主人变为社会公仆,接受人民监督。我们要坚定不移走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,在坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一中推进社会主义民主政治建设,不断加强人民当家作主的制度保障,加快推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,充分调动人民的积极性、主动性、创造性,更加切实、更有成效地实施人民民主。
Marx believed that, given different economic and social environments, the people would produce different ideas and culture. Even though ideas and culture are determined by the economic foundation, they also react with it. Once advanced ideas and culture are apprehended by the masses, they transform into a formidable material force; conversely, if outmoded or erroneous ideas are not done away with, they become fetters on social development. Theoretical awareness and cultural confidence are a force for national progress; advanced values and a free mind are the source of social vitality. Culture both transforms and fashions the spirit of a nation. While remaining grounded in China's realities, our nation must embrace modernization, the world, and the future. We must consolidate the position of Marxism as our guiding thought, develop an advanced socialist culture, and strengthen observance of socialist cultural and ethical standards. We must also see that all areas of social development are imbued with core socialist values, promote the creative transformation and innovative development of our fine traditional culture, help our people raise their political awareness and moral standards, and foster appreciation of fine culture. By doing so, we will continue to add new luster to Chinese culture.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于文化建设的思想。马克思认为,在不同的经济和社会环境中,人们生产不同的思想和文化,思想文化建设虽然决定于经济基础,但又对经济基础发生反作用。先进的思想文化一旦被群众掌握,就会转化为强大的物质力量;反之,落后的、错误的观念如果不破除,就会成为社会发展进步的桎梏。理论自觉、文化自信,是一个民族进步的力量;价值先进、思想解放,是一个社会活力的来源。国家之魂,文以化之,文以铸之。我们要立足中国,面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来,巩固马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位,发展社会主义先进文化,加强社会主义精神文明建设,把社会主义核心价值观融入社会发展各方面,推动中华优秀传统文化创造性转化、创新性发展,不断提高人民思想觉悟、道德水平、文明素养,不断铸就中华文化新辉煌。
Studying Marx requires us to study and practice Marxist thought on social advancement. Marx and Engels envisaged that in the society of the future "production will be calculated to provide wealth for all," and it would feature "the participation of all in the enjoyments provided by all." Engels integrated a series of views raised by Marx in Manifesto of the Communist Party, Critique of the Gotha Program, Capital, and other works, clarifying how, under the conditions of socialism, society should "give healthy and useful labor to all, ample wealth and leisure to all, and the truest and fullest freedom to all." The people yearn for a better life, and our goal is to help them achieve it. We need to remain committed to our people-centered philosophy of development, focus on the most pressing and most immediate issues that concern the people the most, and constantly secure and improve standards of living for the people. We need to promote social fairness and justice, ensure access to a higher level of childcare, education, employment, medical services, elderly care, housing, and social assistance, and see that the gains of reform and development benefit all our people in a fair way. By doing so, we will promote well-rounded human development and achieve shared prosperity for everyone.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于社会建设的思想。马克思、恩格斯设想,在未来社会中,“生产将以所有的人富裕为目的”,“所有人共同享受大家创造出来的福利”。恩格斯结合马克思在《共产党宣言》、《哥达纲领批判》、《资本论》等著作中提出的一系列主张,阐明在社会主义条件下,社会应该“给所有的人提供健康而有益的工作,给所有的人提供充裕的物质生活和闲暇时间,给所有的人提供真正的充分的自由”。人民对美好生活的向往就是我们的奋斗目标。我们要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,抓住人民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,不断保障和改善民生,促进社会公平正义,在更高水平上实现幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,不断促进人的全面发展,朝着实现全体人民共同富裕不断迈进。
Studying Marx requires us to study and practice Marxist thought on the relationship between people and nature. Marx understood that "Man lives from nature," that nature not only provides humans with the source of the means of existence such as soils which are fertile, and rivers, lakes, and oceans which are teeming with fish, but it also provides humans with the source of the means of production. The natural world constitutes the natural conditions in which humans exist. If we humans treat nature well as we produce, live, and develop alongside it, nature will bestow its gifts upon us; however, "if man, by dint of his knowledge and inventive genius, has subdued the forces of nature, the latter avenge themselves upon him." Nature is the mother of life, humans and nature form a biotic community, and humanity must revere and respect nature, follow its ways, and protect it. We need to ensure harmony between humans and nature, firmly realize that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets and conscientiously act on this understanding, mobilize all sectors of society to build an ecological civilization, and build a beautiful China together. By doing so, we will ensure that the people appreciate the beauty of nature, life, and existence as they live among lucid waters and lush mountains, and pursue a model of sustainable development featuring increased production, higher living standards, and healthy ecosystems.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于人与自然关系的思想。马克思认为,“人靠自然界生活”,自然不仅给人类提供了生活资料来源,如肥沃的土地、鱼产丰富的江河湖海等,而且给人类提供了生产资料来源。自然物构成人类生存的自然条件,人类在同自然的互动中生产、生活、发展,人类善待自然,自然也会馈赠人类,但“如果说人靠科学和创造性天才征服了自然力,那么自然力也对人进行报复”。自然是生命之母,人与自然是生命共同体,人类必须敬畏自然、尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然。我们要坚持人与自然和谐共生,牢固树立和切实践行绿水青山就是金山银山的理念,动员全社会力量推进生态文明建设,共建美丽中国,让人民群众在绿水青山中共享自然之美、生命之美、生活之美,走出一条生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路。
Studying Marx requires us to study and practice Marxist thought on world history. Marx and Engels once said that, "The more the original isolation of separate nationalities is destroyed by the developed mode of production, commerce, and division of labor between various nations naturally brought forth by these, the more does history become world history." Marx and Engels' prediction of those years has since become a reality; history and reality increasingly prove the scientific value of this prediction. Today, the global nature of human association is more profound and extensive than ever before, and the interlinking and interdependence between countries are more frequent and intimate than ever before. We live in a united world; whoever rejects this world will also be rejected by it. Living things that are nourished will not injure one another; roads that run parallel will not interfere with one another. We need to stand at the perspective of world history and examine the development trends and the problems we face in the world today, continue to pursue a path of peaceful development, an independent foreign policy of peace, and a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up. We need to continue to expand cooperation with all other countries, take an active part in the global governance system, and realize mutually beneficial cooperation and shared development in more fields and to a higher level, and we must not submit to others and even less so plunder others. In this way, we can work with the people of all other countries to build a community with a shared future for humanity and create a more beautiful world.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于世界历史的思想。马克思、恩格斯说:“各民族的原始封闭状态由于日益完善的生产方式、交往以及因交往而自然形成的不同民族之间的分工消灭得越是彻底,历史也就越是成为世界历史。”马克思、恩格斯当年的这个预言,现在已经成为现实,历史和现实日益证明这个预言的科学价值。今天,人类交往的世界性比过去任何时候都更深入、更广泛,各国相互联系和彼此依存比过去任何时候都更频繁、更紧密。一体化的世界就在那儿,谁拒绝这个世界,这个世界也会拒绝他。万物并育而不相害,道并行而不相悖。我们要站在世界历史的高度审视当今世界发展趋势和面临的重大问题,坚持和平发展道路,坚持独立自主的和平外交政策,坚持互利共赢的开放战略,不断拓展同世界各国的合作,积极参与全球治理,在更多领域、更高层面上实现合作共赢、共同发展,不依附别人、更不掠夺别人,同各国人民一道努力构建人类命运共同体,把世界建设得更加美好。
Studying Marx requires us to study and practice Marxist thought on developing a Marxist political party. Marx recognized that, "In the various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole," and that "they have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole," but instead work "in the interest of the immense majority," and strive to build a communist society. A communist party must "set up before the whole world landmarks by which it measures the level of the Party movement." The basic difference between a Marxist political party and other political parties is that the former always stands with the people and fights for their interests. We need to coordinate our great struggle, great project, great cause, and great dream, and strengthen our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment. We need to continue to drive ahead full and strict governance over the Party, give top priority to consolidating the Party politically, uphold and strengthen overall Party leadership, and uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized, unified leadership. We need to uphold truth and correct errors, forever preserve the political character of Communists, and build the Party into a vibrant Marxist governing party that is always at the forefront of the times, enjoys the wholehearted support of the people, has the courage to reform itself, and is able to withstand all tests.
——学习马克思,就要学习和实践马克思主义关于马克思主义政党建设的思想。马克思认为,“在无产阶级和资产阶级的斗争所经历的各个发展阶段上,共产党人始终代表整个运动的利益”,“他们没有任何同整个无产阶级的利益不同的利益”,而是要“为绝大多数人谋利益”,为建设共产主义社会而奋斗。共产党要“在全世界面前树立起可供人们用来衡量党的运动水平的里程碑”。始终同人民在一起,为人民利益而奋斗,是马克思主义政党同其他政党的根本区别。我们要统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,持之以恒推进全面从严治党,坚持把党的政治建设摆在首位,坚持和加强党的全面领导,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,做到坚持真理、修正错误,永远保持共产党人政治本色,把党建设成为始终走在时代前列、人民衷心拥护、勇于自我革命、经得起各种风浪考验、朝气蓬勃的马克思主义执政党!

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inexorable [in'eksərəbl]

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adj. 不为所动的,坚决不变的 n. 坚定不移的人

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separate ['sepəreit]

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n. 分开,抽印本
adj. 分开的,各自的,

 
promote [prə'məut]

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vt. 促进,提升,升迁; 发起; 促销

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characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]

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n. 特性,特征;特质;特色(characteristi

 
mass [mæs]

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n. 块,大量,众多
adj. 群众的,大规模

 
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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adj. 传统的

 
coordinate [kəu'ɔ:dneit,kəu'ɔ:dnit]

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n. 同等的人物; (色调,图案,样式等)配套服装

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initiative [i'niʃətiv]

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adj. 创始的,初步的,自发的
n. 第一步

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creative [kri'eitiv]

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adj. 创造性的

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v. 巩固,联合,统一

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